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ΚΙΝΗΤΗΡΑΣ TOYOTA 2KD
Appearing in November 2001, the 2KD-FTV is the 2nd generation of the KD series of engine with a smaller 2.5 L (2,494 cc) displacement and went on sale in the UK market in the 2002 Toyota HiAce producing either 66 kW (88 bhp) at 3,800rpm and 192 N⋅m (142 lb⋅ft) at 1,200-3,000rpm or 76 kW (102 bhp) at 3600rpm and 260 N⋅m (192 lb⋅ft) 1,600-2,400 rpm.
The displacement of this engine is based on the previous 2L engine. The bore remained the same at 92 mm (3.62 in) but the stroke was increased to 93.8 mm (3.69 in). It has 16 valves and is a DOHC engine with a turbocharger and intercooler.
It produces 75 kW (101 hp; 102 PS) at 3400 rpm and 26.5 kg⋅m (260 N⋅m; 192 lbf⋅ft) of torque at 1600-2400 rpm with 4 speed Automatic ECT transmission without intercooler and 200 N⋅m (148 lb⋅ft) of torque at 1600-3600 rpm with manual transmission without intercooler and 88 kW (118 hp; 120 PS) at 3400 rpm and 325 N⋅m (240 lb⋅ft) of torque at 1600-3600 rpm for the intercooled version. Toyota Thailand, has updated the turbocharger to variable nozzle turbo (VNT) with intercooler. This increased the horsepower to 106 kW (142 hp; 144 PS) at 3400 rpm and torque to 343 N⋅m (253 lb⋅ft) at 1600-2800 rpm.
The compression ratio is 18.5:1. The Redline of this engine is 4400 RPM. This engine also uses D-4D Common Rail (Common rail direct fuel injection) technology. The manufacturer’s default injection timing is 6.5 deg before TDC. The only major changes from the 1KD-FTV to the 2KD-FTV were the bore and the stroke.
In 2005, Denso Corporation was introduced the 3rd generation of Common Rail System (CRS) on the next 2KD-FTV engine (2005). This fuel system provides ultra-high injection pressure up to 200 MPa (29,000 psi) in order to promote the clean diesel engine. In this engine, the compression ratio was reduced to 17.4:1 with high pressure and multiple diesel injections. The multiple injections consist of pilot injection and the main injection, in order to shorten the ignition delay, reduce the noise, and NO x emission.
The pilot injection timing is 5-6 deg before TDC (dependent on the correction factor by the ECU) while the main injection timing is on the TDC. However, the pilot injection is repealed as the engine speed reaches 2200 rpm and above at low load conditions. This generation of 2KD-FTV engine produces 88 kW (118 hp; 120 PS) at 3600 rpm and the maximum torque is 325 N⋅m (240 lb⋅ft) at 2000 rpm.
This engine is used in the Toyota Hilux, Toyota Fortuner, Toyota Innova and Toyota Hiace. In some Central and South American countries, Toyota also offered this engine on the 2003-2006 4Runner in limited quantities.